However we need to take the seriousness of the offence and difference in offending history into account. Sever criticisms have been made of Messerschmidt.
He notes in modern society there has always been violent, conflict subculture in Sunderland where hard men earned status through ability to use violence.
White working class youths have less chance of educational success so their masculinity is oppositional both in and out of school. Women who try and reject their domestic role find their partners impose it by force, through domestic violence.
If these rewards are not available or not worth the effort crime becomes more likely.
Carlen concludes that for these women poverty and being brought up in care or an oppressive family life were the two main causes of their criminality.
Carlen argues this was the case of women in her study. Feminists argue these double standards exist because the criminal justice system is patriarchal. Cohen argues this lack of an adult male role model means boys are likely to turn to street gangs as a source of masculine identity.